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Architecture design refers to the actual design and layout of spaces. Architecture encompasses many different elements including construction, design, and the manipulation of light as it relates to shadow. Throughout history, architects have found ways to create functional and practical spaces using any materials that were available.

Originally, architecture emerged from necessity. Since ancient cultures needed a way to worship revered religious deities, early Egyptian and Mesopotamian architecture directly reflected the relationship between people and ancient religions. Most buildings constructed during the reign of these empires were meant to pay homage to the heavens. While "architects" as we know them did not exist during the construction of these buildings, the idea behind creating impressive and functional spaces was present.

Unlike Egyptian and Mesopotamian architecture, Persian architecture was designed solely to display the wealth of the state. For the ancient Persians, creating buildings that impressed guests was important. Again, through the need for shelter, the ancient Persians largely contributed to urban design and architecture by building massive cities. Once the Greeks and Romans came into power, architecture design shifted from a religious or pragmatic concentration to design based upon civic concerns.

Due to the Greek and Roman contributions, architecture began to take new forms and shapes. Buildings constructed during Greek and Roman times were massive, impressive, and nearly every structure tested the boundaries of architecture as the world knew it. Today, architecture design is frequently based upon modern concerns such as the environment.

The term architecture as it relates to our world today encompasses many different specialized fields. Current professional architects concentrate on specific types of architecture, rather than architecture as a whole. A landscape architect solely designs landscapes, while a church architect only works on religious structures. This wasn't the case during the time of the ancient Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, or Mesopotamians when all building designers created any type of structure, no matter what the actual purpose of the structure was.

Today's architects must consider form, texture, structure, space, mass, materials, and costs before designing any building or space. Therefore, an architect must have a good grasp of mathematics, engineering, and science. This is precisely why most architects spend many years working within the field of architecture prior to working as independent contractors.

Prospective architects should consider enrolling in a four-year undergraduate program, followed by a graduate program that is specifically focused upon architecture. Through proper education and work experience, a career in architecture design can be achieved. From residential architecture to industrial architecture, architecture design has greatly evolved over the centuries.


Sthapatya veda is the knowledge of vedic architecture. This knowledge comes from a 5,000-year-old Hindu text and is thought to predate Chinese feng shui. Sthapatya (sta-pat-ya) can be translated as “to establish” and veda as “knowledge.”

Sthapatya veda uses the circadian cycle, yet this knowledge expands to include the universe itself. The five elements — air, earth, fire, water and space — are also important factors in building design.

The guidelines for sthapatya veda remain uncontested, though some modern day systems are more refined. In the 1990’s Maharishi Mahesh Yogi revived this ancient knowledge and introduced it to the western world. Since then, sthapatya veda has become accepted as an important contribution to healthy and environmentally friendly living


Homes and buildings are cardinally positioned north, south, east and west. The orientation of the home is the primary consideration and the entrance is ideally facing east, which is governed by the rising sun. The only acceptable alternative would be a north facing entrance. South facing buildings are unacceptable.

The land should be at least an acre in size and be slightly rounded or turtle shaped. The home and the surrounding fenced area is called a vastu. Every detail within the vastu is to be positioned accordingly to specific guidelines. They include everything from drainage directed to the northeast, to an odd number of steps on the stairs, to toilets being housed within water closets, located inside the bathrooms.

Room placement is according to the sun and moon so that daily activity will be energetic and purposeful. The kitchen should be in the southeast corner of the home; the dining area should be in the southwest section. This positioning will cause a natural stimulation of the appetite upon entering these rooms. By positioning the study or library in the northwest corner of the vastu, the intellect will be stimulated upon entering that room. Likewise, upon entering the bedroom, the physiology will begin to settle and prepare for sleep. It is believed that the placement of every room will put the homeowner's activities in line with the patterns of the sun and moon and enhance each experience according to natural law.

The very center point of the home is an area of silence, called the brahmastan. This area should remain inactive from daily life so that the lively silence of the universe can be established in the householder's thoughts and awareness. A brahmastan area should extend upward to a cupola.

A sthapatya veda home should be built of all natural materials and products such as stone, water and wood. This concept should be consistent throughout all phases of the construction process. In decorating the home, all natural fabrics, woods and stones should be used as well. Harmony between the home and the geographical location is also advised.

Light is another important consideration in the construction of a sthapatya veda home. Windows should be placed so that the light can penetrate throughout the home as the sun moves across the sky. This also allows for proper ventilation.

It is not necessary to take on a lifestyle, belief system or religion in order to gain the benefits of living in a sthapatya veda home. The reported advantages range from better health, deeper rest, more clarity and creativity, more happiness and peace of mind.

Legal Advisor

A legal advisor is typically a lawyer or other type of law professional who specializes in offering legal assistance on a variety of matters. While they may sometimes pursue lawsuits and litigation for their clients, the general job of a legal advisor is to ensure that a client's actions in a particular matter are legal. A legal advisor may work on a freelance basis, or may have a permanent job as a counselor to a company, government office or politician, or individual client.

Many legal advisors specialize in a particular area of law. Family law advisors may provide legal services that concern divorce, custody, and inheritance issues. An employment law professional may be concerned with worker's compensation issues, workplace harassment or wrongful dismissal suits. Commercial lawyers often serve as advisors to businesses and corporations. Legal advisors that work for a governmental department will typically specialize in issues such as constitutional law, international law, or public policy.

A legal advisor may serve as a resource for an informed opinion on a legal question. He or she may do research, provide relevant materials, and cite specific laws to help explain a law or craft a plan for a client. In some cases, an advisor may assist in preparing paperwork or examining contracts and other documents to help ensure that an action is being done legally. In some cases, a legal advisor may also serve as a client's attorney, representing him or her in court.

Government officials and departments frequently employ advisors to help draft legislation and proposals that meets existing legal standards. Each department of a government may have a separate head legal advisor specific to their jurisdiction, but the office of a government legal advisor may employee dozens of additional lawyers to serve as associate counselors and assistants. Politicians, particularly those planning to campaign for election, typically employ a legal advisory team to ensure that their actions are in accordance with laws.

Most larger businesses and organizations employ a legal advisor to manage contracts and advise on policy. Police and fire departments, non-profit groups, hospitals, and school districts often require legal advice to navigate the complicated policy laws that dictate their actions. Regional governments, such as city or county boards, may also use advisors to assist in creating local policies and laws.

For individual citizens, it may be possible to get legal advice from a legal aid group, law school clinic, or a law firm. This can be a good first step to determining whether a person needs to hire a lawyer to pursue or defend against a claim. Law clinics and legal aids often provide free advice and some assistants, while law firms may charge a consulting fee simply to give an initial opinion of a case.

Material Testing Lab

A materials test is a testing process in which the properties of a material are assessed. Far from being one test, materials tests are usually very lengthy procedures which involve a detailed assessment, with the goal of learning as much as possible about the material. Materials testing is required by law in many regions of the world for new products which are going to be introduced to the market, and such testing is also routinely performed on older products.

Testing of materials usually starts with assessing the basic properties of the material. The material is also put under strain for a failure analysis, and to determine whether or not it is flammable, which kinds of conditions can cause it to become dangerous, how much weight it can bear, and whether or not it can withstand caustic chemicals. Materials testing includes an analysis of physical and chemical properties, looking at everything from what a material is made from to how well it conducts electricity.

Since many nations have extensive safety standards which govern products sold to consumers, a materials test also includes testing which is designed to determine whether or not a product meets those standards. For example, a child's toy would be tested to see if it can be a choking hazard, or to determine whether or not the plastic it is made from offgases, releasing harmful chemicals which could hurt a child. Materials tests also include assessments of paints, coatings, and all components to check for things which could be dangerous.

This type of testing is performed in a highly controlled lab which rigorously upholds standards. Labs must usually follow standards set by governing bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), ensuring that tests in any lab will be equally rigorous and equally repeatable. Labs usually also specialize in a particular area of materials test procedures, such as electrical testing, plastics testing, and so forth.

In addition to being performed for safety, a materials test can also be conducted for quality assurance purposes. Products which have been cleared for sale can be retested to confirm that they are still of the same quality and to check for signs of adulteration or alterations which might render them unsafe. Quality assurance can also include activities such as calibration during a materials test to confirm that instruments are measuring things properly, and tests to confirm that the manufacturing process is truly standardized, ensuring that every product is the same.

Maintenance and Repairs

What Is Property Maintenance?

Property maintenance is the overall upkeep of a facility and its surrounding property. The term "property maintenance" is most commonly used to refer to the upkeep of facilities that lease space, such as an apartment complex, rented house, or office building. If the owner of the facility is a company, they will often hire a property manager to maintain one or more of their properties. If the property owner is an individual, he or she may decide to personally handle the property maintenance responsibilities.

In an apartment building, the individual responsible for maintaining the property is sometimes referred to as a landlord, superintendent, or caretaker, and may also live onsite. Property maintenance of an apartment building includes cleaning and repairing the building's shared spaces which receive a lot of traffic, such as the foyer, laundry room and elevators. Maintenance and repairs for individual suites are usually handled on an as-needed basis at the request of the tenants, and cleaning individual suites is the responsibility of the tenants. Apartment building maintenance also includes taking care of the building's surrounding property, which may include mowing grass, shoveling snow, salting walkways, and painting steps and outside facades. Most landlords require the assistance of tradespeople for repairs that require skilled labor, such as electrical wiring and plumbing.

Maintaining the property of an office building includes the cleaning and upkeep of the building's shared spaces, such as the main foyer, elevators, and bathrooms. Unlike that of an apartment building, property maintenance for an office building may include cleaning of the individual company suites, depending on the arrangement between the property manager and the tenant. Maintenance of an office building also includes taking care of its surrounding property, by shoveling snow and salting walkways, as well as painting and maintaining parking lots, outside steps, and facades.

In addition to cleaning and repairing a building and its surrounding property, property maintenance for both office spaces and living spaces may entail administrative duties. Some

examples may include ensuring tenants sign copies of the lease, collecting security deposits, distributing memos from property management, and providing tenants with parking passes and keys. Drafting the official documents for distribution, such as leases, memos, and other agreements is not typically considered a part of general property maintenance, and is usually handled by the office of the property owner.

What Is Property Damage Coverage?

Property damage coverage is a type of provision within an insurance policy that helps to cover the cost of repairs for damages sustained by the property of others as the result of the occurrence of a covered event. For example, this type of coverage is often included in car insurance policies and can help to pay for the costs or repair to any property that is damaged as the result of the negligence of the operator of the insured vehicle. This means that if the operator should lose control of the vehicle and run into a business or a private residence, the driver’s insurance will help to cover the expenses of making repairs to the structure.

As with most provisions within an insurance policy, property damage coverage usually comes with some type of limit. This means that the insurance provider will honor a claim for up to a certain amount of damage to any property that resulted from the actions of the insured party. The scope of the coverage may also include assisting with any legal costs involved, should the insured party be sued as the result of those damages. In any event, the total amount of the coverage for both repairs and for legal representation will not exceed the maximum amount stated in the terms and conditions of the policy.

Just about every type of car insurance plan will have provisions for at least some property damage coverage. This is very important, since the coverage can come handy with minor accidents, such as running into a street light or causing some damage to the landscaping on a neighbor’s yard. More importantly, the coverage can be extremely helpful in the event of some major malfunction of the vehicle that results in the loss of control of the car, causing damage to dwellings or other types of structures.

Property damage coverage should be part of the car insurance coverage for any vehicles that are owned and operated by businesses as well as by individuals. For example, freight lines that routinely operate a fleet of vans and trailer trucks to haul goods across the country will include this type of protection in the insurance policies. The amount of coverage will often vary, based on the type of goods that are hauled and the potential for accidents that could lead to damage to different types of property. Periodic assessment of the amount of property damage coverage provided by the policies is often a good idea, especially as shifts in the economy occur that could lead to higher repair and replacement costs exceeding the current scope of coverage.

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