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Property Exchange

Also known as a 1031 exchange, a property exchange is a mechanism that makes it possible to purchase and sell various types of property that are of like kind. As part of the function of this like kind exchange, it is possible to ease the tax burden associated with the transaction. The provisions for a property exchange are defined in the United States by Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Service code.

Because a property exchange makes it possible to defer some of the tax consequences associated with the transaction, the exchange can help to stimulate the economy by promoting reinvestment of any profits realized from the buying and selling of the properties. The profits or equity gained from the sale of property are used as part of the purchase of the similar property, thus offsetting the gain and lowering the tax burden. In the best of circumstances, it is possible to reinvest the full amount of the equity and thus create a situation where there is no taxable gain from the combination of transactions.

It is possible to effect a property exchange by conducting two simultaneous transactions or to delay the execution of one transaction for a short period of time. This flexibility makes it possible to arrange a reciprocal exchange between two parties, or allow for the sale of property followed with the purchase of like property from another source using the cash flow from the sale. In both instances, it is important to make sure the transactions are conducted within the provisions of the 1031 code, or the real estate exchange may result in a gain that is subject to taxes.

The end result of a property exchange may yield more benefits than simply reducing the tax burden. Often, the combination of the two transactions makes it possible to enhance cash flow for the investor while also helping to reduce the amount of management obligations involved with the property. This type of strategy can also be extremely helpful when the investor is relocating to another section of the country, as it makes it possible to sell real estate in one location while acquiring like property elsewhere without creating an additional financial burden. As long as the properties involved are similar enough to meet the government-approved definition of like-kind property, a property exchange can even help to increase the net worth of the investor without worries of additional tax burdens.

Property Valuer

There are several types of property valuation, or property appraisal, services. To choose the best, you must determine your situation and requirements. Look for a property valuation service provider who is certified, has many years of experience, and comes with excellent recommendations.

Individuals buying or selling a home typically require a real estate appraisal, and businesses also may use property valuation services to determine their worth. In the case of divorce proceedings, both parties typically hire an appraiser to value the shared belongings so that the assets can be divided properly. There are also appraisers for a variety of antiques and collectibles.

There are also online property valuation services. These are usually real estate websites which have compiled data from public records, such as tax assessments and recent sales, to determine the approximate value of a home. Online property valuation services often do not provide a specific monetary value because they do not usually have knowledge of the property's condition. In many cases, the actual value of the property differs due to improvements, damage, or other factors.

Online property valuation websites can give a buyer or seller a rough estimate of comparable properties. Although not an official appraisal, this can be useful, especially to individuals who are selling their property without the services of a real estate professional. Sometimes a property is in a remote location or is unique to the area. In this case, online valuation services provide little or no assistance, as there are no surrounding comparable properties.

When you have determined the type of appraiser you need, begin your search. Search online, look at the listings in your local phone book, and ask friends and family for recommendations. After finding a property valuation service that specializes in the field you need, meet the appraiser in person before contracting with them. Look for someone who can back up their research with comparables. Double check with the county or region's geographic information service (GIS) to find similar properties and their tax assessed values.


A real estate developer is a real estate professional who specializes in creating new developments or renovating existing ones, marketing them successfully, and selling them. Real estate developers often work with partners to share the risk and the workload, and they may work for big companies which conduct real estate development on a large scale or use real estate development as one investment tool in a diverse portfolio. People can approach a career as a real estate developer from a number of perspectives; developers may hold degrees in real estate development, or come from a background as a real estate agent, contractor, or architect.

Working as a real estate developer is very challenging. Developers need to be able to assess a wide variety of future sites and determine whether or not they will be workable and acceptable. A real estate developer can look at an empty lot and find potential in it, or tour a decaying building and create a vision for remodeling and successfully selling it. Real estate developers tend to work on a big scale, constructing multiple units which may extend into the thousands or renovating a building to create a number of saleable units in the form of offices, retail spaces, apartments, and so forth.

Experience in the real estate industry is critical, as a developer must know the market well to know whether or not a project will be successful. Developers also need connections with local governments which will help them accomplish projects, ranging from friendly people in the planning office who may provide recommendations to help push a project through to allies on planning commissions and city councils who will promote their projects.

A good real estate developer is also part of a much larger team. He or she needs to work with architects, contractors, landscapers, politicians, real estate agents, and numerous other professionals to see a project through from start to finish. Developers have to select good teams, organize them well, and manage them effectively, meeting the needs of the project and the team members while staying in control of the overall development.

Many real estate developers pick a particular area of specialty, such as high-end residential properties, commercial real estate, middle-class subdivisions, low-income housing, and so forth. Real estate developers may also travel across a wide region to work on development projects, applying their skills to settings and cities which may be very different. A development which appeals to the high-end residential market in New York City, for example, will not necessarily be as successful in Minneapolis, and a real estate developer must be able to be flexible and read communities well to meet their needs.


Broadly speaking, a contractor can be anyone who agrees to fulfill the terms of a legally binding agreement. Most commonly, the term is used to describe an expert in the construction industry who hires skilled and unskilled workers to actually construct a financed project. A contractor must be licensed by an examining board before he or she can bid on the project. This bid is based on the estimated cost of the building materials, the wages of subcontractors and laborers and the professional's fee for coordinating the project.

Although a contractor's main concern is hiring qualified subcontractors (specialized craftsmen), he or she may also perform some of the construction work as well. Most develop good working relationships with other construction specialists, so they often hire the same specialized companies and workers for each contracted project. The contractor is ultimately responsible for the quality of the work performed by the people he or she hires, so it doesn't always pay to hire unknown entities to cut down on expenses.

Broadly speaking, a contractor can be anyone who agrees to fulfill the terms of a legally binding agreement. Most commonly, the term is used to describe an expert in the construction industry who hires skilled and unskilled workers to actually construct a financed project. A contractor must be licensed by an examining board before he or she can bid on the project. This bid is based on the estimated cost of the building materials, the wages of subcontractors and laborers and the professional's fee for coordinating the project.

Although a contractor's main concern is hiring qualified subcontractors (specialized craftsmen), he or she may also perform some of the construction work as well. Most develop good working relationships with other construction specialists, so they often hire the same specialized companies and workers for each contracted project. The contractor is ultimately responsible for the quality of the work performed by the people he or she hires, so it doesn't always pay to hire unknown entities to cut down on expenses.


A real estate broker is a professional who helps sellers sell a property. In other words, a real estate broker is an intermediary between buyers and sellers. In the United Kingdom, a real estate broker is also known as a estate agent. A real estate broker represents the buyer, but do not have power of attorney or the right to make important decisions on the client's behalf.

A real estate broker usually has salespersons, known as real estate agents, to assist him in the selling process. While it is possible for a real estate broker to represent the buyer by signing a special agreement, most work exclusively with sellers.

A license is required to act as a real estate broker. This is especially important if money will exchange hands and if there are agents working under the supervision of the broker. Unlicensed activity is not permitted unless the buyer is acting as his own real estate broker, in which case there is no need for any further paperwork. To obtain a real estate broker license, a person has first to be accredited as a real estate agent, and then take a 90-hour course and pass an exam on real estate law.

A real estate broker can provide a series of services, such as a market analysis of the home's value, property appraisal, document preparation, consulting and guidance, and auction supervision. In addition to this, a real estate broker also helps with the listing and advertising of the property, negotiating price, and drafting closing records. It's also possible for a real estate broker to provide help with loans and financing, and to organize "open houses" to showcase the property.

A real estate broker makes money on commission, generally a five to seven percent of the final selling price of the property. Flat fees are also an option but not a popular one. Working on commission usually means higher property prices, as the real estate broker will try to get the most for its work. This can either benefit or harm the seller, as a pricey property will take longer to sell.


Insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for payment. An insurer is a company selling the insurance; the insured, or policyholder, is the person or entity buying the insurance policy. The amount to be charged for a certain amount of insurance coverage is called the premium. Risk management, the practice of appraising and controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice.

Insurance can have various effects on society through the way that it changes who bears the cost of losses and damage. On one hand it can increase fraud, on the other it can help societies and individuals prepare for catastrophes and mitigate the effects of catastrophes on both households and societies.

Insurance can influence the probability of losses through moral hazard, insurance fraud, and preventive steps by the insurance company. Insurance scholars have typically used morale hazard to refer to the increased loss due to unintentional carelessness and moral hazard to refer to increased risk due to intentional carelessness or indifference.Insurers attempt to address carelessness through inspections, policy provisions requiring certain types of maintenance, and possible discounts for loss mitigation efforts. While in theory insurers could encourage investment in loss reduction, some commentators have argued that in practice insurers had historically not aggressively pursued loss control measures - particularly to prevent disaster losses such as hurricanes - because of concerns over rate reductions and legal battles. However, since about 1996 insurers began to take a more active role in loss mitigation, such as through building codes.

Building Model Making

A model maker is an artist who creates three-dimensional scale models of architectural renderings of proposed building projects. The projects are normally industrial or commercial and generally require models of office complexes, hospitals and schools. Other commonly requested replicas are housing developments, shopping centers, bridges and public buildings. She may work as an independent contractor or be part of the staff of a large architectural firm or model-making company.

Models are generally favored over drawings, blueprints or sketches because they put the proposed buildings in proportion to the surroundings. Unlike a drawing, the 3-D mock-up created by a model maker simultaneously shows all sides of the structure and puts it in perspective with the area’s existing buildings, landscaping and vistas. These models have proven to be the most effective tool of persuasion when presented to a board or committee for approval.

An architectural model may be simple or complex. A model maker is often asked to create both types by an architect who commonly uses them for different presentations to various people. The simpler version may be an arrangement of painted cubes while the complex version customarily includes details like miniature working streetlamps, trees, landscaping and human and animal figures.

For both simple and complex models, the maker begins the project by studying the blueprints and artist renderings supplied by the architect. The next step is to plan the building stages, much like those used in actual building construction. A model maker customarily follows a work pattern that is highly rational and proceeds from the basic construction of each building to intricate finishing details.

The choice of building materials used by the model maker depends on several factors. Budget guidelines are normally the first consideration. If the model needs to be durable enough to travel or is expected to be physically handled by multiple parties, sturdier materials may be chosen. Conversely, if the model is designated to be presented only briefly to one party, the model maker may choose less expensive and more delicate building materials.

Exemplary attention to detail is a common requirement to be a successful model maker. The ability to accurately replicate real items to scale is generally necessary, as is the talent to realistically create models from drawings and blueprints. Knowledge of how to use crafting tools like miniature screwdrivers, glue guns and precision cutting and molding instruments is necessary.

A high school diploma or equivalent is generally required for this position. No specific courses are offered through colleges for a person who wants to become a model maker. Classes in woodworking, drafting, art and drawing are generally recommended. Some architectural firms offer internships or on-the-job training.

Land Surveyor

Land surveyors are people who study and determine boundaries and other features of land or real estate in order to completely and accurately convey what is owned on paper. In some ways, they are like translators, translating what is in the paper world to the real world situation. Land surveyors are most commonly seen with measuring instruments, especially around road construction, but that is not the only aspect of their job.

Often, land surveyors must do a considerable amount of research before even getting to the point where they are out in the field and do surveys. They first must find out what the nature of the job is. In some cases, such surveyors may be contracted privately by a group or may work for a company or organization full time. For example, state governments, who often build roads, may have need of full time land surveyors. A land surveyor may also be employed by companies that engage in a lot of construction activity.

Of course, one of the most important things a surveyor does is determine property boundaries. Without the precise measuring of boundaries, projects can quickly become a major problem. While this may or may not be a big deal as far as buildings, if the project is something such as a road, it can significantly alter the desired route.

Land surveyors will often note elevation changes and other physical features that could be important as a project progresses. This can add a considerable amount of time to the work involved, but also be invaluable information to those who need to depend on those measurements when making their designs. Therefore, this is an aspect of the job that should not be overlooked. Those professionals depend on an accurate picture of what they are dealing with before the job even begins.

As technology has improved, the tools that land surveyors use have also become more sophisticated. While chains, chalk lines and compasses may still be used in some situations, these have likely been replaced in many situations by GPS devices, three-dimensional scanning tools and other high tech instruments. These help provide a very accurate picture of what is be surveyed. However, surveyors should always double check their work. Some may feel more comfortable having the work verified by more than one instrument.

Once the surveying is complete, a report is made detailing the findings and sent to the interested parties. In some cases, land surveyors may be asked to explain their findings. In particularly contentious situations, such as a legal dispute involving land, they may even be called on to testify in court. However, such situations are extremely rare.

Digital Measurement Equipment

Mesurement Equipment is verry usefull for mesuring properties. With the help of Digital Measurement Equipment mesuring will be verry eassy and fast also perfect.

A survey technician is responsible for determining the size and layout of a plot of land through different methods of measurement.And this mesurement will perfectly done by Digital Measurement Equipment. Oftentimes, survey technicians will be hired by a local government to survey land. They are also commonly hired by real estate and construction companies, industries in which land size must be accurately measured. Knowing how to use specialized tools and technology is a very import part of being a land survey technician, as these ensure accurate and precise measurements.

Landscaping and Garden Maker

Landscaping is a profession which involves manipulating the natural environment in an area to make it look a certain way. This profession often relies heavily on gardening, but landscaping also involves the installation of walls and other features, the construction of buildings, and the consideration of an area as a whole. There are a variety of reasons to practice landscaping, ranging from a desire to make an area look attractive to a push to make an area functional for recreation.

People have been practicing landscaping for thousands of years, as evidence of elaborate gardens from ancient cultures on every inhabited continent testify. Landscaping was often used to beautify the area around temples, palaces, and public areas, but it was also utilized in and around private homes. The Romans, for example, had homes with landscaped enclosed courtyards enjoyed only by members of the household, while the Mayans lined the walkways to their temples with elaborate plantings. Landscaping could also have a practical function, as evidenced by the gardening terraces constructed by some Native American tribes for the purpose of crop cultivation.

Typically, landscaping is confined to a set area, such as the property surrounding a home, office building, museum, or similar structure. Usually a landscaper starts the project by sketching the building and its context, looking at how the natural environment looks, and studying limitations such as neighboring buildings, poor soil quality, and so forth. Once the landscaper has a map of the are to be landscaped, he or she can start to think about design.

Landscaping often starts with laying out pathways, and building up from there to create a lush environment which may include fountains, pools, benches, gazebos, stone retaining walls, and other features. Once the basic groundwork has been laid, the landscaper can start adding shrubs, trees, plants, and so forth to create a desired look. Landscaping may also be themed, as in the case of a traditional English garden, a native plant garden, or a low-water garden.

This profession is also an art form, and it takes a good eye to appreciate the existing features of the natural environment and think about how to best manipulate them. Good landscaping flows seamlessly with the natural environment, rather than fighting it. Landscaping also requires extensive maintenance to ensure that it continues to look good through years of use. Once an area has been landscaped, it may be turned over to a gardener or maintenance crew who can keep the individual aspects of the landscaping in good shape, while the landscaper moves on to another project.

Building Automization

Building automation systems are used to control building access, heating, ventilation and security. This type of computerized system has become increasingly popular as technology has progressed. These systems are necessary to effectively manage and support the complex, computerized systems used in modern buildings.

The implementation of building automation systems changes the overall efficiency of the buildings systems. This type of system is quite expensive and typically is installed as part of the original construction or during renovation of an existing building. Located in office complexes or manufacturing facilities, these systems are necessary for large spaces and generally are not optimal for residential or mid-size office buildings.

Controlling and monitoring building access is a huge aspect of building automation systems. The system operator can create user profiles that control access to different areas of the building, even limiting access to specific hours. Staff members are required to use a unique identifying card, code or other method to gain access to the building, and these identifiers are managed by the building operator.

Heating and air conditioning large spaces is very complex and can be managed through building automation systems, instead of a series of separate systems. Thermostats are located in various areas of the facility, and all of the data is entered into the system. The information is displayed to the system operator, who can adjust the airflow and settings to ensure that the temperature is correct.

Security software is built into most building automation systems, with contact sensors, cameras and data recording tools used to provide the required information to staff members. The process of integrating the software into building automation systems can be quite complex and often requires the cooperation of a team of experts.

There are several large companies that offer building automation systems. This type of system is very expensive to purchase, install and operate. During the selection process, it is advisable to write down all of the features that the system should have. This list should be to at least three different companies, and one should obtain written quotes for the purchase, installation and maintenance of this type of system.

A growing number of service companies offer maintenance contracts for building automation systems. In many cases, the costs for this type of service is significantly less than the service contract from the equipment provider. One should investigate all of the options before signing a contract or service level agreement. The contract itself should include the guaranteed response time, exempt items and primary contact.

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